On September 5, 2017, the Trump Administration announced the ending of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program – a temporary immigration relief that was introduced by the Obama Administration on June 15, 2012. In the Memorandum on Rescission of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) from DHS Acting Secretary Elaine Duke, and related FAQs, the Administration set forth the following steps to end the program:
Initial DACA (Form I-821D) applications and related applications for Employment Authorization Document (Form I-765): U.S. Citizenship & Immigration Services (USCIS) will adjudicate, on a case-by-case basis, properly filed initial DACA requests and associated applications for work authorization that were received by September 5, 2017. All initial DACA requests received after September 5 will be rejected.
DACA Renewal (Form I-821D) applications and related applications for Employment Authorization Document (Form I-765): USCIS will adjudicate, on a case-by-case basis, properly filed renewal DACA requests and associated applications for work authorization, from current DACA holders, that were received by September 5, 2017.
USCIS will also accept and adjudicate DACA renewal requests from current DACA holders whose benefits will expire on or before March 5, 2018, as long as they are received by October 5, 2017.
USCIS will reject all DACA renewal requests that do not fit this criteria, including all applications received after October 5, 2017.
Applications for Advance Parole (Travel Document) Based on DACA Grants: As of September 5, USCIS will not approve any new DACA-based applications for Advance Parole/travel document (Forms I-131). USCIS will administratively close all pending applications for advance parole and refund the filing fees.
The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) will generally honor the validity period for previously approved applications for Advance Parole, but the U.S. Customs & Border Protection (CBP) retains the authority to determine whether to admit persons who present themselves at a U.S. port of entry, as a matter of discretion. USCIS also retains authority to revoke or terminate an advance parole document at any time.
Why is the DACA program ending?
The DACA program was implemented by a June 15, 2012 memorandum from then DHS-Secretary Janet Napolitano, titled Exercising Prosecutorial Discretion With Respect to Individuals Who Came to the United States as Children.
The Obama Administration planned to expand the DACA program in February 2015 and introduce the Deferred Action for Parents of Americans and Lawful Permanent Residents (DAPA) program in May 2015. These plans, however, were halted after a Texas-led coalition of 26 states filed a lawsuit in the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of Texas to stop the rollout.
On February 16, 2015, U.S. District Court Judge Andrew Hanen in Texas issued a temporary injunction blocking the implementation of the expanded DACA and the new DAPA. On June 23, 2016, the U.S. Supreme Court issued a 4-4 opinion in United States v. Texas that allowed the temporary injunction to stand.
In a June 29, 2017 letter to Attorney General Jeff Sessions, Texas and nine other states requested that DACA be phased out and DHS rescind the June 15, 2012 memorandum and not renew or issue any new DACA permits. They stated that if the Trump Administration agrees to rescind the June 15, 2012 DACA memorandum, they will voluntarily dismiss their lawsuit pending in the Southern District of Texas; otherwise, the complaint will be amended to challenge the existing DACA program.
During his election campaign, President Trump promised to end DACA. After Trump took office on January 20, then-Secretary of Homeland Security John Kelly rescinded the DAPA policy in June 2017. USCIS, however, continued to approve both initial and renewal DACA applications.
In its decision to end the DACA program, the Trump Administration considered the federal court rulings in ongoing litigation and the September 4, 2017 letter from the Attorney General to the DHS Acting Secretary, noting that DACA was an “unconstitutional exercise of authority by the Executive Branch” and calling for a wind-down process.
Who is affected?
Almost 800,000 persons have received DACA since the program began in June 2012. DACA holders include undocumented immigrants who came to the U.S. as minors before age 16, lived in the U.S. since June 15, 2007, are currently in school or have graduated from high school, have no serious criminal history, and meet other eligibility requirements.
How does the ending of the DACA program affect DACA holders?
DACA holders with a currently valid Employment Authorization Document (EAD) may continue to work lawfully in the United States. DHS does not plan to terminate or revoke any previous grants of DACA or work permits solely due to the ending of the program.
Advance Parole/Travel Authorization
DACA holders with a valid Advance Parole document, who are outside the United States, should be able to reenter the country. But Advance Parole has never guaranteed admission to the United States by the CBP, which maintains authority to decide whether to grant entry or deny it. The DHS may also revoke or terminate a grant of Advance Parole at any time, including when the DACA holder is outside the United States, which would prevent reentry to the country.
In the FAQs related to the September 5, 2017 memorandum ending DACA, the Trump Administration stated ,“[i]nformation provided to USCIS in DACA
requests will not be proactively provided to ICE and CBP for the purpose of immigration enforcement proceedings, unless the requestor meets the criteria for the issuance of a Notice To Appear or a referral to ICE under the criteria set forth in USCIS’ Notice to Appear guidance.”
Explore Other Options
The DACA program provides authorized stay, work authorization, and temporary protection from removal (deportation), but no lawful nonimmigrant status or path to permanent residence. DACA recipients ought to be exploring other options to legalize their status, preferably before the program ends.
For example, if you are a DACA holder who is married to a U.S. citizen, your spouse may file an I-130 immigrant petition for you, and you may seek to obtain an immigrant visa at the U.S. Consulate or adjustment to permanent resident status within the United States in the immediate relatives category.
Adjusting to permanent resident status requires lawful admission to the United States. If you entered the country unlawfully, without presenting yourself for inspection, you normally must depart the country to apply for the immigrant visa overseas. Departure from the United States (without Advance Parole) triggers the 3/10 year unlawful presence bar.
Section 212(a)(9)(B)(i)(I) of the Immigration & Nationality Act (INA) states the 3 year bar to re-entry applies if you were unlawfully present in the U.S. for more than 180 days, but less than one year, and then depart the U.S. prior to commencement of removal proceedings. The U.S. government adds up all the days you were unlawfully present in the U.S. in a single ongoing period or stay (i.e. continuous period of unlawful presence).
The 3-year bar does not apply if you depart the U.S. after the Notice to Appear in removal proceedings is filed with the immigration court, following service of the NTA on you. But leaving the U.S. while you are in removal proceedings or being issued a removal order carries other immigration consequences.
Section 212(a)(9)(B)(i)(II) of the INA states the 10 year bar to re-entry applies if you were unlawfully present in the U.S. for one year or more, and then depart the U.S. The U.S. government adds up all the days you were unlawfully present in the U.S., even if they were from different periods or stays (i.e. the aggregate period of unlawful presence).
You begin to accrue unlawful presence only after April 1, 1997 and once you turn age 18.
The 3/10 year bar to re-entry is triggered only if you leave the U.S. This does not mean you should never leave the U.S. to legalize your immigration status, but you should know there are risks to your departure. (Illegally re-entering or attempting to illegally re-enter the U.S. further complicates your case and triggers a permanent bar under certain circumstances.)
A person who is inadmissible due to the 3 year/10 year bar may not receive an immigrant visa before the 3 year/10 year bar expires without first obtaining an I-601 waiver or I-601A waiver under section 212(a)(9)(B)(v) of the Immigration & Nationality Act. To be eligible for the waiver, you must have a qualifying relative (U.S. citizen or permanent resident spouse or parent) who will suffer “extreme hardship” if you are not granted the immigrant visa and admitted to the United States.
Consult an Immigration Attorney
The American Immigration Council issued a September 5, 2017 Practice Advisory describing other possible forms of relief, such as adjustment of status, U and T visas, asylum, and special immigrant juvenile status.
DACA holders must consult an experienced immigration attorney to discuss whether they are eligible for other immigration options that are more lasting than DACA and could lead to permanent resident status.
This article provides general information only. It is based on law, regulations and policy that are subject to change. Do not consider it as legal advice for any individual case or situation. Each legal case is different and case examples do not constitute a prediction or guarantee of success or failure in any other case. The sharing or receipt of this information does not create an attorney-client relationship.
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Photo by: Antony Theobald